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Drugs from natural ingredients

Written By aris kelana on Jumat, 30 November 2012 | 12.05

Drug from natural ingredients. For nearly 25 years (1981-2006), the discovery of new drugs as 1184 and produced through the synthesis of 30%, natural ingredients derived 23%, and 5% alarn materials. For cancer drugs produced by the synthesis of 24%, 28% alarn derived materials, and the materials alarn 14%.In the history of drug discovery we are familiar figures of medicinal chemistry, such as 
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), 
  • Lonis Pasteur (1822-1895), Robert Koch (\ 843-1910), 
  • Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), and the 
  • Rev. Edward Stone (1760) found the cold medicine and pain relief (analgesia), the salicin from the bark of the plant Willow (Salix alba).  
Through hydrolysis and oxidation reactions produced salicylic acid is more effective. Evolved into aspirin by acetylation process in 1893, which does not cause irritation and is a prodrug. In 1880, it was discovered an anesthetic drug and Cocaine from Erythroxylum coca grown into procaine. Antibiotic penicillin was discovered by accident by Fleming (1928) while conducting research and conducted various Staphylococcus reisolasi (1940) and clinical trials by Chain, Florey.

Drugs from natural ingredients

Since the 19th century is rapidly evolving drug discovery, the discovered drugs barn with more modern methods. To produce a new drug is not easy, stages take more than 15 years since through five stages,
  • ie screening,For screening usually begins with in vitro assays, namely isolation based activity (activity guided isolation) to obtain the active compound. Sources of raw materials through the screening of drugs other than plants can also be of animals, microbes, endofitik, and marine life as well as from commercial drug 
  • identification of the lead compound (the active compound),Identification can be done with the support structure, especially FT-NMR instrument and MS 
  • optimization of active compounds, Active compounds which can be obtained directly tested in vivo, but can also be optimized first activity by studying the structure and activity relationship (quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSAR) by designing derivatives and analogues in order to obtain a more promising active compounds.After that, it will proceed through the test in vivo or known jumIah preklinikal requiring relatively large sample 
  • Preclinical testing. Preclinical trials conducted include effectiveness (dose), acute toxicity (LDso), and toxicity SUBCHRONIC.   
  • Clinical I-N.In addition to a long time and considerable expense, the research is still a lot of risk unsuccessful, Drugs from natural ingredients
source references: http://www.pdii.lipi.go.id/read/2012/11/28/pengembangan-bahan-alam-untuk-obat-baru-antikanker-dan-antikolesterol.html

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